Fans may not see Kim Kardashian Bikini photos in this summer. Kim Kardashian recently shared skin problem Dyschromia with her admirers. How often is it, how bad is it, what causes it, and how do you cure it? I’m going to explain what the term “dyschromia” means, how it affects people’s complexion, and what you can do about it.
What is a the disorder? How dyschromia prevent Kim Kardashian Bikini photos?
Dyschromia is a melanin-based pigment irregularity where areas of skin have dramatically different skin pigment – and thus color – compared with the rest of their skin.
In dyschromia, skin melanin is either increased or decreased in an area compared to the rest of a person’s skin leading to skin color irregularities.
Normal human skin pigmentation color
The quantity of melanin pigment in your skin determines the pigmentation of your skin color. This is pretty consistent throughout a small region of your skin, yet it varies significantly between skin on various parts of your body (such as your face versus groin).
The melanin pigment in your skin is generally created and stays in the epidermis, the top layer of your skin, where it is usually equally distributed.
How does your skin make melanin pigment?
Melanin is made by melanocytes which are specialized cells present in the bottom (basal) layer of the epidermis. Melanocytes produce melanin and package it into ‘granules’ called melanosomes.
People with darker skin pigment have larger melanosomes with more melanin pigment in them. Skin melanocytes always produce some melanin but UVB sun exposure stimulates them to make more melanin than they normally do. This is important when it comes to understanding the causes and treatment options for dyschromia.
The melanin granules are transferred to the other cells in the epidermis called the keratinocytes. This is actually important in determining how ‘tan’ your skin looks. UVA causes a rearrangement of existing melanin within the cells but it does not stimulate melanin synthesis.
As seen in the diagram above, the keratinocyte cells that store the melanin granules are stacked in the epidermis. These cells progress up the layers, finally dying and sloughing off as dead cells in the stratum corneum. As they develop up and off your skin, they carry the melanin granules with them, which is why a tan (and other instances of dyschromia) fade with time.
A dyschromia skin disorder can negatively impact a person’s sense of wellbeing
Pigmentary skin problems are often difficult to hide and can be very embarrassing to patients. The negative psychosocial impact of dyschromia can significantly reduce a person’s sense of self-esteem and their quality of life.
or example, vitiligo, an autoimmune condition that results in the destruction of melanocytes with resultant white patches of skin, is well known to negatively impact a person’s sense of wellbeing. Melasma is a hyperpigmentation dyschromia, typically limited to facial skin, where the psychosocial negative impact is well documented. Hyperpigmented acne scars are another dyschromia skin problem that negatively impacts a person’s self-esteem.
The bottom line is that dyschromia can have a major influence on a person’s well-being, according to scientific evidence.
Kim Kardashian has stated that her dyschromia skin condition is hyperpigmentation caused by her psoriasis, which she has had for years. We can assume that Kim Kardashian Bikini photos can be affected largely.
UV exposure makes dyschromia worse
Because the problem with dyschromia is due to melanin, it is important to reduce melanin synthesis as much as possible by sun protecting skin, especially injured skin. Blocking rays with UPF 50 clothing and hats is important. Wearing broad spectrum mineral sunscreen is the best choice for exposed skin.
Wearing a tinted face sunscreen with iron oxide can also help filter blue light from gadget displays, which has been linked to skin hyperpigmentation issues.
What are the most common causes of hyperpigmentation dyschromia?
The term ‘postinflammatory hyperpigmentation,’ or PIH, is sometimes shortened. Skin inflammation following an accident or rash heals to a darker skin hue, as the term suggests. This includes rashes and skin conditions including psoriasis, acne, razor bumps, and insect bites. PIH is also used to treat burns.
Melanocytes respond to skin irritation by becoming hyperactive, which can result in dark pigmentation. People with darker skin are more susceptible to melanocyte hyperreactivity as a result of inflammation and, as a result, are more likely to heal with dark PIH regions. The PIH melanocyte pigment can remain in the epidermis or migrate to the dermis, the second living skin layer.
How do you know if PIH pigment is in the epidermis or dermis?
- When the PIH is limited to the epidermis, the color is brown.
- When pigment drops into the dermis (the second living skin layer), the color is more of a blue/gray discoloration.
When melanin has dropped into the dermis it is harder to correct because it acts like tattoo pigment and can persist for a year or even longer.
Dyschromia from psoriasis
Postinflammatory dyschromia is a typical symptom of psoriasis healing. Kim Kardashian has been candid about her experience with this skin condition.
Psoriasis is a rash that causes crusty red plaques on the skin and is typically hereditary. People with dark skin tone are more likely to heal with hyperpigmentation dyschromia that can last a long time. People with fair skin who suffer from psoriasis may actually heal with white dyschromia patches that normalize in color faster.
Sun allergic and sun-toxic reaction dyschromia
A classic example of a toxic reaction to the sun that heals with hyperpigmentation is the ‘margarita burn’. Lime juice contains compounds that make skin sun sensitive while also stimulating melanin pigment production, resulting in a burn that heals with hyperpigmentation.
Interestingly, the compounds in lime juice that cause this are similar to a medicine we combine with medical UVA exposure to treat psoriasis.
Tanning beds and sun exposure result in dyschromia in the form of freckles, can be observed in Kim Kardashian Bikini Photos
Freckles are caused by both chronic and acute UV exposure, such as a severe sunburn. Another cause of hyperpigmentation dyschromia in psoriasis patients is that psoriasis is frequently treated with UV radiation.
The bottom line when it comes to hyperpigmentation dyschromia skin issues is this:
Hyperpigmentation dyschromia is more common in those with darker skin tones, especially after psoriasis, acne, and other skin lesions have healed. Lighter skin tones contain less melanin and are therefore less vulnerable; healing may result in redness and a scar, but there is a lower likelihood of severe brown post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation.
Additionally, sun or tanning bed ray exposure causes melanin production and granule redistribution in the skin. When melaninstimulating UV rays strike inflamed skin, melanin granules may fall into the second dermal skin layer, resulting in persistent dyschromia.
The best way to treat dyschromia hyperpigmentation
To avoid melanocytes from producing melanin, avoid UV exposure. As epidermal keratinocytes progressively develop off the skin, present skin melanin fades.
If the rash is caused by melanin in the dermal layer, be patient and continue to shield your skin from the sun until it heals. Over time, immune cells in the dermis destroy skin melanin.
To limit melanin synthesis, employ skin lightening treatments that prevent melanin development. Because tyrosinase is the primary enzyme responsible for melanin formation, they are referred to as “tyrosinase inhibitors.” Hydroquinone is the most effective tyrosinase inhibitor currently available.
List of tyrosinase inhibitors commonly used in dermatology to fight skin hyperpigmentation skin problems:
- Kojic Acid
- L-ascorbic acid vitamin C
- Ellagic acid (as found in Phyllanthus emblica L. fruit extract)
- Tranexamic acid (oral medicine with severe side effects that is not significantly effective when used topically, in my opinion)
- Azelaic acid (can be irritating in my experience)
Treatment for dyschromia is possibke, Fans can hope new Kim Kardashian bikini photos
In addition to sunscreen and tyrosinase inhibitors, there are 2 additional ingredients beneficial for normalizing skin pigment irregularities:
- Retinoids, such as topical prescription tretinoin and non-prescription retinol, inhibit skin pigmentation by a number of mechanisms.
- Alpha hydroxy acids such as glycolic acid also inhibit skin melanin pigmentation by a number of mechanisms.
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